SCALETOOL is structured in a modular way.
In the module on drivers, we provide a classification of drivers into scale sensitivity classes. We include tools that allow mapping of drivers across both spatial and temporal scales and we illustrate predicted future habitat fragmentation for a range of land cover types.
The module on biodiversity patterns and processes provides an overview of conservation science at four ecological levels: genetics, demography, community assembly, and ecosystem functioning. Important questions of spatial and temporal scaling in biodiversity patterns are outlined, along with recommendations on how ecological processes should be accommodated by land managers and conservation planners.
The module on policies and management addresses the complexity and gradual accumulation of environmental problems that exacerbate challenges for appropriate governance at various scales. In this module we identify a number of scale challenges and possible responses to them. Besides an overview of social science theory on scales and governance, we provide recommendations for green infrastructure, site selection, management of protected areas, biodiversity monitoring, and ecological fiscal transfers.
Regional connectivity and networks of protected areas are evaluated in another module. This includes detailed definitions of different kinds of connectivity and an exploration of different measures of them as well as a discussion of the usefulness of such concepts and measures when scaling up from small to large areas, and from single to multiple species. Guidelines for researchers and practitioners are given in order to enhance consideration of connectivity in conservation policy and management.
In the module tools, we compile methods, mainly developed within SCALES, which facilitate accounting for scaling issues in conservation. There are tools for connectivity assessments, up- and down-scaling, and simulating ecological processes. Each tool is illustrated with specific example studies. Moreover, cross-links are provided to further frequently used ecological models relevant to scaling issues.
New and published data are made available here to help assess and visualise scaling effects. The compilation comprises species specific trait data, life history, and functional trait data (including dispersal and minimum area requirements) for plants, insects, reptiles and birds across Europe.
Case studies from six countries (Finland, France, Greece, Poland, Taiwan and UK) illustrate key results of the SCALES project on national and subnational levels, as well as at the European level.