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SCALETOOL IntroductionDriversBiodiversityPolicies and managementConnectivity and protected areas
From species traits to dispersal distances Simulation of genetic data Population Viability Sex-biased dispersal Biodiversity scaling Perspectives for landscape scale management Conservation strategies at appropriate spatial scales
 

Perspectives for landscape scale management of protected areas and ecosystem services

In order to improve the management and conservation of protected areas and contribute to the maintenance of agricultural biodiversity and ecosystem services, it is critical that policy and management practices consider the complex spatial and temporal interactions between semi-natural habitats and cropped areas. This is essential because of the close links and interactions between fragmented conservation areas and the mixed agricultural matrix in which they are embedded.
The key recommendation is that the impacts of functional spill-over from agricultural to semi-natural or natural protected areas may be negative and therefore should be studied in more detail and accordingly addressed in conservation schemes. In particular, novel, targeted management schemes could create buffer zones surrounding protected conservation areas to mitigate the impact of intensive agriculture, to enhance the population size of pollinators and pest control agents, and to maintain the diversity of protected and endangered plant and animal species. Useful management approaches could include:
  • a higher proportion of extensive grasslands
  • organic farming
  • temporal set-aside of arable fields
  • larger field margins
  • new linear habitat elements in these buffer zones.
We recommend that governments should support such changes by offering spatially targeted economic incentives. For agricultural systems, we need novel management concepts that consider the provision of ecosystem services by using simulation tools that allow farmers to assess the yield consequences of temporal crop rotation patterns. Dual approaches may be needed: those which enhance ecosystem services by managing the commoner species delivering the service and those which focus on protecting rare species. Careful spatial targeting of appropriate interventions will be necessary to achieve win-win outcomes for nature conservation areas and crop production systems. Suggestions for how this might be achieved can be found here.



Interaction between semi-natural habitats and cropped areas


References

Marsh, C.J., Gunton, R.M., Kunin, W.E. (2014) Conserving different kinds of biodiversity in different sorts of landscapes, pp. 90-94. In: Henle, K., Potts, S.G., Kunin, W.E., Matsinos, Y.G., Similä, J., Pantis, J.D., Grobelnik, V., Penev, L., Settele, S. (eds.): Scaling in Ecology and Biodiversity Conservation. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia.

Riccardo Bommarco, Lorenzo Marini (2014) Scaling of biodiversity change caused by land-use change, pp. 78-82. In: Henle, K., Potts, S.G., Kunin, W.E., Matsinos, Y.G., Similä, J., Pantis, J.D., Grobelnik, V., Penev, L., Settele, S. (eds.): Scaling in Ecology and Biodiversity Conservation. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia.

Steffan-Dewenter, I., Bommarco, R., Holzschuh, A., Öckinger, E., Potts, S.G., Riedinger, V., Schneider, G., Krauss, J. (2014) The interface between conservation areas and agriculture: Functional spill-over and ecosystem services, pp. 83-89. In: Henle, K., Potts, S.G., Kunin, W.E., Matsinos, Y.G., Similä, J., Pantis, J.D., Grobelnik, V., Penev, L., Settele, S. (eds.): Scaling in Ecology and Biodiversity Conservation. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia.
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