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SCALETOOL IntroductionDriversBiodiversityPolicies and managementConnectivity and protected areas

Models and tools

Within the SCALES project, a range of different models and tools have been developed or extended to assess scaling issues for drivers of biodiversity change, biodiversity patterns and processes, connectivity issues, and policies. These tools fit to at least one of the following topics. Check the topic you are interested in to filter the model set.

population genetics
population dynamics
population size
community dynamics
ecosystem services
reserve site selection
species representation
Found: 19 tools

This tool is designed to examine climatic risks of European butterflies. Future scenarios of projected changes in suitable climatic conditions for selected European butterfly species are presented. In addition, detailed management guidelines for butterflies of the Habitats Directive of the European Union are provided.
Population viability analyses (PVAs) serve as central tools in nature conservation. PVAs focus on particular species in a given landscape and address a specific problem. They are usually complex, and thus hard to design, apply and communicate in an easy way.
Design, Application, and Communication.
This enables you to enhance communication and repeatability of your PVA, strengthen its credibility and relevance for policy and management, and improve the capacity to generalize from PVA findings across studies.
FunCon is a software designed to investigate questions such as: how connected is the landscape from the point of view of individuals and species? Which parts of the landscape are connected or disconnected and how does this affect home-range establishment success? How does landscape structure affect dispersal distance and the dispersal kernel as an outcome of animal-landscape interaction? From where to where will dispersing individuals move, and what is the best measure to assess these movements?
G-RaFFe is a simple process-based model which generates roads and fields to reproduce the processes in which forests are converted into arable lands. For a selected level of habitat cover, three factors dominate its outcomes: the number of roads (accessibility), maximum field size (accounting for land ownership patterns), and maximum field disconnection (which enables fields to be detached from roads). The model was shown to have greater realism compared to mathematical-based (pattern-based) landscape generators, such as fractal-based algorithms, yet retain equal level of simplicity.
LPJ-GUESS was not developed within SCALES but was frequently used for analyses. Furthermore, other tools developed in SCALES are linked to LPJ-GUESS (e.g. Network SDM).
MARXAN was not developed within SCALES but was frequently used for analyses. Furthermore, other tools developed in SCALES are linked to MARXAN.
MetaConnect is an individual-based-model that uses land-cover maps and species life history traits (species biological characteristics) to simulate population dynamics and population genetics. It takes into account the interactions between how the species lives and the habitat.
micEuroclim: microclimate modelling tool
A linear predictor equation derived from statistical modelling, implemented in an R package.
Network SDM
The methodological approach is based on two steps: a) development of Species Distribution Models and b) application of graph theory. In the first step one may also use object-oriented, modular frameworks for modelling the dynamics of ecosystem structure, such as LPJ_Guess.
NRT - National responsibility tool
NRT uses a GIS-based approach to determine the international importance of a species’ distribution area in a focal area, following the approach of Schmeller et al. (Biodiversity and Conservation 2008; Nature Conservation 2012). It bases the assessment on the bioclimatic map developed by Metzger et al. (Global Ecology and Biogeography 2013).
Pollinator diffusion model
The model takes a landscape consisting of cells of an agricultural crop and cells of habitat reserves. For each agricultural cell we calculate the number of pollinator visits provided by wild pollinators dispersing from nearby reserve cells, convert number of visits to additional fruit set and average across the landscape.
RangeShifter is an individual-based, spatially-explicit and stochastic dynamic model. At its core is the integration of population dynamics (which can be represented at different levels of complexity from a simple non-overlapping generation and only-female population model to more complex sexual and stage-structured models) and dispersal (explicitly modelled in its three phases of emigration, transfer and settlement and accounting for context-dependencies and sex/stage specificity), which are played out on top of gridded multi-habitat landscapes. These landscapes can be real or artificial and there is additionally the possibility of simulating environmental gradients and environmental stochasticity. Individuals are the basic entity of the model and options for inter-individual variability in dispersal traits and their evolution is included.
Reserve network assessment tool
The model is an emulator of several simulation models. It first assesses geometric properties of the landscape using two broad categories of variables: patch statistics and connectivity statistics. It then uses predetermined coefficients to estimate the landscape’s potential for each of the conservation criteria and taxonomic groups.
sdcLHS - The spatial-downscaling conditional Latin hypercube sampling
The spatial-downscaling conditioned Latin hypercube sampling method (sdcLHS) uses experimental variograms of certain auxiliary variables to select an optimal set of sites for sampling one or more variables of interest. This sample should be optimal for representing the full variability in the ecological variables, to maximise the power of subsequent analyses to describe relationships among the variables.
Spatial Neutral Model
This is a simulation model based around a spatial grid where one individual can survive in each grid space. The model contains stochastic (random) processes that lead to the death of individuals. New-born individuals for suitable habitat areas disperse and fill the gaps left by former dead individuals.
SPLATCHE (Ray et al. 2010) is a genetic simulator based on a deme occupancy model that incorporates the influence of the environment in the simulation of migration of a given species from one origin. In a second phase, the molecular genetic diversity of one or several samples drawn from the simulated species can be generated.
SPOMSIM (Stochastic Patch Occupancy Model Simulator)
Stochastic patch-occupancy model (SPOM) implemented as a simulation based on metapopulation theory. Spatially implicit
Thomas-model occupancy downscaling
A set of equations to be fit (using a simulated annealing algorithm) to gridded, multi-scale occupancy data, implemented in the software Mathematica. The fitted equations can yield predictions of occupancy rates at finer resolutions.
ZONATION produces a hierarchical prioritization of the landscape based on the occurrence levels of features (e.g. species or habitat types) in sites (grid cells). It iteratively removes the least valuable remaining cell, accounting for connectivity in the process.

Copyright and disclaimer: SCALES and SCALETOOL

CONDITIONS OF USE: We explicitly encourage the use of SCALETOOL. SCALETOOL is freely available for non-commercial use provided you acknowledge SCALES as source. For more extensive access to databases (e.g. for statistical analyses or if you want to contribute data), tools, or background material, please contact the SCALES coordinator (send us email).


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